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en Past tense 4   »   cs Minulý čas 4

84 [eighty-four]

Past tense 4

Past tense 4

84 [osmdesát čtyři]

Minulý čas 4

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to read č--t číst č-s- ---- číst 0
I read. Če-l js--. Četl jsem. Č-t- j-e-. ---------- Četl jsem. 0
I read the whole novel. P---et- js---celý r-m--. Přečetl jsem celý román. P-e-e-l j-e- c-l- r-m-n- ------------------------ Přečetl jsem celý román. 0
to understand r---mět rozumět r-z-m-t ------- rozumět 0
I understood. R-zum---j--m. Rozuměl jsem. R-z-m-l j-e-. ------------- Rozuměl jsem. 0
I understood the whole text. Roz-mě- -s--------u t-xt-. Rozuměl jsem celému textu. R-z-m-l j-e- c-l-m- t-x-u- -------------------------- Rozuměl jsem celému textu. 0
to answer o--ov-d-t odpovídat o-p-v-d-t --------- odpovídat 0
I answered. O-p----ěl-jse-. Odpověděl jsem. O-p-v-d-l j-e-. --------------- Odpověděl jsem. 0
I answered all the questions. Odpov---- -s-- -a-vš-c-ny -tázky. Odpověděl jsem na všechny otázky. O-p-v-d-l j-e- n- v-e-h-y o-á-k-. --------------------------------- Odpověděl jsem na všechny otázky. 0
I know that – I knew that. V-m-to –--ěd-- j--m --. Vím to – věděl jsem to. V-m t- – v-d-l j-e- t-. ----------------------- Vím to – věděl jsem to. 0
I write that – I wrote that. P--- -- - n-p-a- j-em-to. Píšu to – napsal jsem to. P-š- t- – n-p-a- j-e- t-. ------------------------- Píšu to – napsal jsem to. 0
I hear that – I heard that. Slyší---o-- -----l j--- to. Slyším to – slyšel jsem to. S-y-í- t- – s-y-e- j-e- t-. --------------------------- Slyším to – slyšel jsem to. 0
I’ll get it – I got it. Do-----to----on-sl js-m -o. Donesu to – donesl jsem to. D-n-s- t- – d-n-s- j-e- t-. --------------------------- Donesu to – donesl jsem to. 0
I’ll bring that – I brought that. Přine---to-- př--esl-j--m--o. Přinesu to – přinesl jsem to. P-i-e-u t- – p-i-e-l j-e- t-. ----------------------------- Přinesu to – přinesl jsem to. 0
I’ll buy that – I bought that. K----m-to –-k--pi- js-m -o. Koupím to – koupil jsem to. K-u-í- t- – k-u-i- j-e- t-. --------------------------- Koupím to – koupil jsem to. 0
I expect that – I expected that. O-e--v-- to --o-----a- jse- t-. Očekávám to – očekával jsem to. O-e-á-á- t- – o-e-á-a- j-e- t-. ------------------------------- Očekávám to – očekával jsem to. 0
I’ll explain that – I explained that. Vy-v-t-uji--- - -ysvě-lil --e--to. Vysvětluji to – vysvětlil jsem to. V-s-ě-l-j- t- – v-s-ě-l-l j-e- t-. ---------------------------------- Vysvětluji to – vysvětlil jsem to. 0
I know that – I knew that. Znám t- – z----js-- to. Znám to – znal jsem to. Z-á- t- – z-a- j-e- t-. ----------------------- Znám to – znal jsem to. 0

Negative words aren't translated into the native language

When reading, multilinguals translate subconsciously into their native language. This happens automatically; that is, the readers do it without realizing. It could be said that the brain functions like a simultaneous translator. But it doesn't translate everything! One study has shown that the brain has a built-in filter. This filter decides what gets translated. And it appears that the filter ignores certain words. Negative words aren't translated into the native language. Researchers selected native speakers of Chinese for their experiment. All test subjects spoke English as their second language. The test subjects had to rate various English words. These words had different emotional content. There were positive, negative and neutral terms. While the test subjects read the words, their brains were examined. That is, the researchers measured the electrical brain activity. In doing so, they could see how the brain worked. Certain signals are generated during the translation of words. They indicate that the brain is active. However, the test subjects showed no activity with the negative words. Only the positive or neutral terms were translated. Researchers don't yet know why this is. Theoretically, the brain has to process all words the same. It could be, however, that the filter quickly examines each word. It is analyzed while still being read in the second language. If a word is negative, the memory is blocked. In other words, it can't think of the word in the native language. People can react very sensitively to words. Perhaps the brain wants to protect them from emotional shock…