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|I want to go to the library.||Ho-- u k--------.||+|
|I want to go to the bookstore.||Ho-- u k-------.||+|
|I want to go to the newspaper stand.||Ho-- d- k-----.||+|
|I want to borrow a book.||Ho-- p------- k-----.||+|
|I want to buy a book.||Ho-- k----- k-----.||+|
|I want to buy a newspaper.||Ho-- k----- n-----.||+|
|I want to go to the library to borrow a book.||Ho-- u k-------- d- p------ k-----.||+|
|I want to go to the bookstore to buy a book.||Ho-- u k------- d- k---- k-----.||+|
|I want to go to the kiosk / newspaper stand to buy a newspaper.||Ho-- i-- d- k----- d- k---- n-----.||+|
|I want to go to the optician.||Ho-- k-- o-------.||+|
|I want to go to the supermarket.||Ho-- u s----------.||+|
|I want to go to the bakery.||Ho-- k-- p-----.||+|
|I want to buy some glasses.||Ho-- k----- n------.||+|
|I want to buy fruit and vegetables.||Ho-- k----- v--- i p-----.||+|
|I want to buy rolls and bread.||Ho-- k----- ž----- i k---.||+|
|I want to go to the optician to buy glasses.||Ho-- d- o------- d- k---- n------.||+|
|I want to go to the supermarket to buy fruit and vegetables.||Ho-- d- s----------- d- k---- v--- i p-----.||+|
|I want to go to the baker to buy rolls and bread.||Ho-- d- p----- d- k---- ž----- i k---.||+|
Minority languages in EuropeMany different languages are spoken in Europe. Most of them are Indo-European languages. In addition to the large national languages, there are also many smaller languages. They are minority languages. Minority languages are different from official languages. But they aren't dialects. They aren't the languages of immigrants either. Minority languages are always ethnically driven. Meaning, they are the languages of particular ethnic groups. There are minority languages in almost every country of Europe. That amounts to about 40 languages in the European Union. Some minority languages are only spoken in one country. Among them for example is Sorbian in Germany.
Romani, on the other hand, has speakers in many European countries. Minority languages have a special status. Because they are only spoken by a relatively small group. These groups cannot afford to build their own schools. It is also difficult for them to publish their own literature. As a result, many minority languages are threatened by extinction. The European Union wants to protect minority languages. Because every language is an important part of a culture or identity. Some nations do not have a commonwealth and only exist as a minority. Various programs and projects are meant to promote their languages. It is hoped that the culture of smaller ethnic groups will be preserved as well. Nevertheless, some minority languages will disappear soon. Among them is Livonian, spoken in a province of Latvia. Only 20 people remain as native speakers of Livonian. This makes Livonian the smallest language in Europe.
_______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken in Pakistan and a few Indian states. _______ is the native language of about 60 million people. It is the national language in Pakistan. It is also recognized as one of the 22 official languages in India. _______ is very closely related to Hindi. Both languages are basically just two sociolects of Hindustani.
Hindustani emerged from different languages in northern India starting in the 13th century. Today _______ and Hindi are considered two independent languages. Speakers of these languages can communicate with each other easily though. The semiotic system is what clearly differentiates the two. _______ is written with a version of the Persian-Arabic alphabet, while Hindi is not. _______ is very prominent as a literary language. It is also often used in large film productions. Learn _______ - it is the key to the culture of South Asia!