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33 [thirty-three]

At the train station


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When is the next train to Berlin? Ka- i- n------- v------- u- B------? +
When is the next train to Paris? Ka- i- n------- v------- u- P-----? +
When is the next train to London? Ka- i- n------- v------- u- L------? +
When does the train for Warsaw leave? Ci--- i- n------- v------- u- V------? +
When does the train for Stockholm leave? Ci--- i- n------- v------- u- S--------? +
When does the train for Budapest leave? Ci--- i- n------- v------- u- B--------? +
I’d like a ticket to Madrid. Es v---- b----- u- M------. +
I’d like a ticket to Prague. Es v---- b----- u- P----. +
I’d like a ticket to Bern. Es v---- b----- u- B----. +
When does the train arrive in Vienna? Ci--- v------- p----- V---? +
When does the train arrive in Moscow? Ci--- v------- p----- M------? +
When does the train arrive in Amsterdam? Ci--- v------- p----- A---------? +
Do I have to change trains? Va- m-- i- j---------? +
From which platform does the train leave? No k--- c--- a---- v-------? +
Does the train have sleepers? Va- v------- i- g----------? +
I’d like a one-way ticket to Brussels. Es v---- b----- u- B------ t---- t---. +
I’d like a return ticket to Copenhagen. Es v---- b----- a---------------- n- K-----------. +
What does a berth in the sleeper cost? Ci- m---- v---- g----------? +

Language change

The world in which we live changes every day. As a result, our language can never stagnate. It continues to develop with us and is therefore dynamic. This change can affect all areas of a language. That is to say, it can apply to various aspects. Phonological change affects the sound system of a language. With semantic change, the meaning of words change. Lexical change involves changes to vocabulary. Grammatical change alters grammatical structures. The reasons for linguistic change are varied. Often economic reasons exist. Speakers or writers want to save time or effort. Such being the case, they simplify their speech.

Innovations can also promote language change. That is the case, for instance, when new things are invented. These things need names, so new words emerge. Language change is typically not planned. It is a natural process and often happens automatically. But speakers can also vary their language quite consciously. They do so when they want to achieve a certain effect. The influence of foreign languages also promotes language change. This becomes particularly obvious in times of globalization. The English language influences other languages more than any other. You can find English words in almost every language. They are called Anglicisms. Language change has been criticized or feared since ancient times. At the same time, language change is a positive sign. Because it proves: Our language is alive – just like us!
Guess the language!
_______ belongs to the Iranian language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. It is important in other countries too, however. Among them are Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Bahrain, Iraq and India. _______ is the native language of approximately 70 million people. An additional 50 million people speak it as a second language. Different dialects are spoken depending on the region.

In Iran, the Teheran dialect is considered the standard spoken language. In addition, the official written language of _______ also has to be learned. The _______ semiotic system is a variation of the Arabic alphabet. _______ contains no noun markers. There are also no grammatical genders. In the past _______ was the most important common language of the Orient. When you study _______ you quickly discover a fascinating culture. And _______ literature is among the most significant literary traditions in the world.