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Past tense 4
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|I read.||Es l-----.||+|
|I read the whole novel.||Es i------- v--- r-----.||+|
|I understood.||Es s------.||+|
|I understood the whole text.||Es s------ v--- t-----.||+|
|I answered.||Es a--------.||+|
|I answered all the questions.||Es a-------- u- v----- j----------.||+|
|I know that – I knew that.||Es t- z--- – e- t- z-----.||+|
|I write that – I wrote that.||Es t- r----- – e- t- u---------.||+|
|I hear that – I heard that.||Es t- d----- – e- t- d-------.||+|
|I’ll get it – I got it.||Es t- n--- – e- t- a-----.||+|
|I’ll bring that – I brought that.||Es t- n--- – e- t- a-----.||+|
|I’ll buy that – I bought that.||Es t- p---- – e- t- n------.||+|
|I expect that – I expected that.||Es t- g---- – e- t- g------.||+|
|I’ll explain that – I explained that.||Es t- p---------- – e- t- p----------.||+|
|I know that – I knew that.||Es t- p------ – e- t- p-----.||+|
Negative words aren't translated into the native languageWhen reading, multilinguals translate subconsciously into their native language. This happens automatically; that is, the readers do it without realizing. It could be said that the brain functions like a simultaneous translator. But it doesn't translate everything! One study has shown that the brain has a built-in filter. This filter decides what gets translated. And it appears that the filter ignores certain words. Negative words aren't translated into the native language. Researchers selected native speakers of Chinese for their experiment. All test subjects spoke English as their second language. The test subjects had to rate various English words. These words had different emotional content. There were positive, negative and neutral terms.
While the test subjects read the words, their brains were examined. That is, the researchers measured the electrical brain activity. In doing so, they could see how the brain worked. Certain signals are generated during the translation of words. They indicate that the brain is active. However, the test subjects showed no activity with the negative words. Only the positive or neutral terms were translated. Researchers don't yet know why this is. Theoretically, the brain has to process all words the same. It could be, however, that the filter quickly examines each word. It is analyzed while still being read in the second language. If a word is negative, the memory is blocked. In other words, it can't think of the word in the native language. People can react very sensitively to words. Perhaps the brain wants to protect them from emotional shock…
_______ is a member of the West Germanic language family. That means that it is related to German and English. _______ is the native language of about 25 million people. The majority of those people live in the Netherlands and Belgium. _______ is also spoken in Indonesia and Suriname. This is due to the fact that the Netherlands used to be a colonial power. As a result, _______ also formed the basis for several Creole languages.
Even Afrikaans, spoken in South Africa, originated from _______. It is the youngest member of the Germanic language family. _______ is distinctive in that it contains many words from other languages. In the past, French had a very large influence on the language. German words are often adopted too. More and more English terms have been included over the past few centuries. As a result, some fear that _______ will completely disappear in the future.