Phrasebook

en Past tense of modal verbs 1   »   ad ОсэфэшI глаголмэ яблэкIыгъэ шъуашэр 1

87 [eighty-seven]

Past tense of modal verbs 1

Past tense of modal verbs 1

87 [тIокIиплIырэ блырэ]

87 [tIokIiplIyrje blyrje]

ОсэфэшI глаголмэ яблэкIыгъэ шъуашэр 1

[OsjefjeshI glagolmje jabljekIygje shuashjer 1]

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We had to water the flowers. К-эгъ-гъэ-- --- --Iэ-------эя-ъэ. К__________ п__ а________ ф______ К-э-ъ-г-э-э п-ы а-I-т-I-н ф-я-ъ-. --------------------------------- Къэгъагъэмэ псы акIэткIэн фэягъэ. 0
K-e--g---je-p-y-a-Ij-t-Ije- -j-ja--e. K__________ p__ a__________ f________ K-e-a-j-m-e p-y a-I-e-k-j-n f-e-a-j-. ------------------------------------- Kjegagjemje psy akIjetkIjen fjejagje.
We had to clean the apartment. Унэ- --ыз-----ы-ьын-фэя-ъэ. У___ к_____________ ф______ У-э- к-ы-э-ы-х-ж-ы- ф-я-ъ-. --------------------------- Унэр къызэIытхыжьын фэягъэ. 0
U-jer-k--je-yth--h-y--fjej---e. U____ k______________ f________ U-j-r k-z-e-y-h-z-'-n f-e-a-j-. ------------------------------- Unjer kyzjeIythyzh'yn fjejagje.
We had to wash the dishes. Хь--ъу-ш-къухэ------тх-а---ж-ы-х- ф--гъ-. Х______________ к________________ ф______ Х-а-ъ---ы-ъ-х-р к-э-т-ь-к-ы-ь-н-э ф-я-ъ-. ----------------------------------------- Хьакъу-шыкъухэр къэттхьакIыжьынхэ фэягъэ. 0
H-a----h---hje- -j--t-'-----h---hje fj-j-g-e. H______________ k__________________ f________ H-a-u-s-y-u-j-r k-e-t-'-k-y-h-y-h-e f-e-a-j-. --------------------------------------------- H'aku-shykuhjer kjetth'akIyzh'ynhje fjejagje.
Did you have to pay the bill? У--э- --ч--ыр) ш--ты-ь-н ----ъа? У____ (_______ ш________ ф______ У-с-р (-ч-т-р- ш-у-ы-ь-н ф-я-ъ-? -------------------------------- Уасэр (счетыр) шъутыжьын фэягъа? 0
U--jer (schet----s-u--z-'y- f-----a? U_____ (________ s_________ f_______ U-s-e- (-c-e-y-) s-u-y-h-y- f-e-a-a- ------------------------------------ Uasjer (schetyr) shutyzh'yn fjejaga?
Did you have to pay an entrance fee? ЧIэхьапкIэ---у--н -а------гъ-г-а? Ч_________ ш_____ ф___ х_________ Ч-э-ь-п-I- ш-у-ы- ф-е- х-у-ъ-г-а- --------------------------------- ЧIэхьапкIэ шъутын фаеу хъугъагъа? 0
C---eh'a---j--s-ut-n----u hug-ga? C____________ s_____ f___ h______ C-I-e-'-p-I-e s-u-y- f-e- h-g-g-? --------------------------------- ChIjeh'apkIje shutyn faeu hugaga?
Did you have to pay a fine? Т-------у--н -а-- х-уг-аг-а? Т____ ш_____ ф___ х_________ Т-з-р ш-у-ы- ф-е- х-у-ъ-г-а- ---------------------------- Тазыр шъутын фаеу хъугъагъа? 0
Ta-yr-shut-n-f-e---u-ag-? T____ s_____ f___ h______ T-z-r s-u-y- f-e- h-g-g-? ------------------------- Tazyr shutyn faeu hugaga?
Who had to say goodbye? Хэт- -------э»-к-эзы--- фаеу -ъуг---? Х___ «________ к_______ ф___ х_______ Х-т- «-ъ-р-I-» к-э-ы-о- ф-е- х-у-ъ-р- ------------------------------------- Хэта «хъяркIэ» къэзыIон фаеу хъугъэр? 0
Hj--- -hjark-j---kje--Io--f--u hu---r? H____ «_________ k_______ f___ h______ H-e-a «-j-r-I-e- k-e-y-o- f-e- h-g-e-? -------------------------------------- Hjeta «hjarkIje» kjezyIon faeu hugjer?
Who had to go home early? Хэт- ж--у-яд-жь--I-жьын-ф-е-----гъ-р? Х___ ж___ я____ к______ ф___ х_______ Х-т- ж-э- я-э-ь к-о-ь-н ф-е- х-у-ъ-р- ------------------------------------- Хэта жьэу ядэжь кIожьын фаеу хъугъэр? 0
H--ta zh'--- --d-e--- kI------ -aeu hu-jer? H____ z_____ j_______ k_______ f___ h______ H-e-a z-'-e- j-d-e-h- k-o-h-y- f-e- h-g-e-? ------------------------------------------- Hjeta zh'jeu jadjezh' kIozh'yn faeu hugjer?
Who had to take the train? Х----------у--ит-ы-х-ан-ф--у--ъ---э-? Х___ м_______ и________ ф___ х_______ Х-т- м-ш-о-у- и-I-с-ь-н ф-е- х-у-ъ-р- ------------------------------------- Хэта мэшIокум итIысхьан фаеу хъугъэр? 0
H---a mj-s-I---m-----s--an -aeu --g-er? H____ m_________ i________ f___ h______ H-e-a m-e-h-o-u- i-I-s-'-n f-e- h-g-e-? --------------------------------------- Hjeta mjeshIokum itIysh'an faeu hugjer?
We did not want to stay long. Т- ---э т-къ--ы тш---г--а--э-. Т_ б___ т______ т_____________ Т- б-р- т-к-э-ы т-I-и-ъ-а-ъ-п- ------------------------------ Тэ бэрэ тыкъэты тшIоигъуагъэп. 0
Tj- -j-rj-----j-ty--shI-i-ua-je-. T__ b_____ t______ t_____________ T-e b-e-j- t-k-e-y t-h-o-g-a-j-p- --------------------------------- Tje bjerje tykjety tshIoiguagjep.
We did not want to drink anything. Т--з--и ---ъо ---о-гъ--г-эп. Т_ з___ т____ т_____________ Т- з-м- т-ш-о т-I-и-ъ-а-ъ-п- ---------------------------- Тэ зыми тешъо тшIоигъуагъэп. 0
T-- -y-i --s-- -----ig---j-p. T__ z___ t____ t_____________ T-e z-m- t-s-o t-h-o-g-a-j-p- ----------------------------- Tje zymi tesho tshIoiguagjep.
We did not want to disturb you. Тэ дг----мэ-I-н--у-тшIо--ъ------. Т_ д______________ т_____________ Т- д-ъ-г-м-к-ы-х-у т-I-и-ъ-а-ъ-п- --------------------------------- Тэ дгъэгумэкIынхэу тшIоигъуагъэп. 0
T-e---j-gumje-I---jeu-t----ig--g---. T__ d________________ t_____________ T-e d-j-g-m-e-I-n-j-u t-h-o-g-a-j-p- ------------------------------------ Tje dgjegumjekIynhjeu tshIoiguagjep.
I just wanted to make a call. С- т-л-ф--к-э--ыт-о сшIо-г--агъ. С_ т_________ с____ с___________ С- т-л-ф-н-I- с-т-о с-I-и-ъ-а-ъ- -------------------------------- Сэ телефонкIэ сытео сшIоигъуагъ. 0
Sje---lef-n-I----y-eo ---I--g---. S__ t__________ s____ s__________ S-e t-l-f-n-I-e s-t-o s-h-o-g-a-. --------------------------------- Sje telefonkIje syteo sshIoiguag.
I just wanted to call a taxi. С---а-си -ы-быты -ш-----у--ъ. С_ т____ с______ с___________ С- т-к-и с-у-ы-ы с-I-и-ъ-а-ъ- ----------------------------- Сэ такси сыубыты сшIоигъуагъ. 0
Sje----si sy-byt--s--I-i-u--. S__ t____ s______ s__________ S-e t-k-i s-u-y-y s-h-o-g-a-. ----------------------------- Sje taksi syubyty sshIoiguag.
Actually I wanted to drive home. Сэ --д--ь-сы-Iо-ьы -шIои------. С_ т_____ с_______ с___________ С- т-д-ж- с-к-о-ь- с-I-и-ъ-а-ъ- ------------------------------- Сэ тадэжь сыкIожьы сшIоигъуагъ. 0
S-e----j-zh' s----z--y --hIo--u-g. S__ t_______ s________ s__________ S-e t-d-e-h- s-k-o-h-y s-h-o-g-a-. ---------------------------------- Sje tadjezh' sykIozh'y sshIoiguag.
I thought you wanted to call your wife. Сэ ---ъ----ъ-сэ-те--ф------удэ-у---- --I-и--уагъ-у -ъыс-I---ы-ъ. С_ у___________ т_________ у________ п____________ к____________ С- у-ш-х-а-ъ-с- т-л-ф-н-I- у-э-у-у-э п-I-и-ъ-а-ъ-у к-ы-ш-о-I-г-. ---------------------------------------------------------------- Сэ уишъхьагъусэ телефонкIэ удэгущуIэ пшIоигъуагъэу къысшIошIыгъ. 0
Sj--ui--h'-g-------le-o-k--e--d-eg--hhuI-----h-o---a---u-k-s-hIo---yg. S__ u___________ t__________ u____________ p____________ k____________ S-e u-s-h-a-u-j- t-l-f-n-I-e u-j-g-s-h-I-e p-h-o-g-a-j-u k-s-h-o-h-y-. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Sje uishh'agusje telefonkIje udjegushhuIje pshIoiguagjeu kysshIoshIyg.
I thought you wanted to call information. С--д-эуап--ыдэб--о---- -юр---те-еф----э----ыт--щ- -ъ-с-----ы--. С_ д_____ з___________ б____ т_________ у________ к____________ С- д-э-а- з-д-б-ъ-т-р- б-р-м т-л-ф-н-I- у-ф-т-о-т к-ы-ш-о-I-г-. --------------------------------------------------------------- Сэ джэуап зыдэбгъотырэ бюром телефонкIэ уафытеощт къысшIошIыгъ. 0
S---dz--e----zydjebg-t-rje-b-u-o-------on------af-----hht ky--h--s-I--. S__ d_______ z____________ b_____ t__________ u__________ k____________ S-e d-h-e-a- z-d-e-g-t-r-e b-u-o- t-l-f-n-I-e u-f-t-o-h-t k-s-h-o-h-y-. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Sje dzhjeuap zydjebgotyrje bjurom telefonkIje uafyteoshht kysshIoshIyg.
I thought you wanted to order a pizza. Сэ ------к-яб-ъ-хьын---у----ъэу--ъ---Iо----ъ. С_ п____ к____________ у_______ к____________ С- п-ц-э к-я-г-э-ь-н-у у-э-г-э- к-ы-ш-о-I-г-. --------------------------------------------- Сэ пиццэ къябгъэхьынэу уфэягъэу къысшIошIыгъ. 0
Sje-p---j--k---g-e--yn-e---f--ja---u --sshI---I--. S__ p_____ k_____________ u_________ k____________ S-e p-c-j- k-a-g-e-'-n-e- u-j-j-g-e- k-s-h-o-h-y-. -------------------------------------------------- Sje piccje kjabgjeh'ynjeu ufjejagjeu kysshIoshIyg.

Big letters, big feelings

Advertising uses a lot of pictures. Pictures awaken our particular interests. We look at them longer and more intently than letters. As a result, we remember advertisements with pictures better. Pictures also produce strong emotional reactions. The brain recognizes pictures very quickly. It knows immediately what can be seen in the picture. Letters function differently than pictures. They are abstract characters. Therefore, our brain reacts slower to letters. First, it must understand the meaning of the word. One might say the characters must be translated by the language part of the brain. But emotions can be produced using letters too. The text just needs to be very large. Studies show that big letters have a big effect as well. Large letters aren't just more noticeable than small letters. They also produce a stronger emotional reaction. This is true for positive as well as negative feelings. The size of things has always been important to mankind. Man must react quickly to danger. And when something is large, it's usually already quite close! So it's understandable that large pictures cause strong reactions. Less clear is how we react to large letters. Letters aren't actually a signal for the brain. Despite this, it shows greater activity when it sees large letters. This result is very interesting to scientists. It shows how important letters have become for us. Our brain has somehow learned how to react to writing…