Phrasebook

en big – small   »   ur ‫بڑا – چھوٹا‬

68 [sixty-eight]

big – small

big – small

‫68 [اڑسٹھ]‬

arsath

‫بڑا – چھوٹا‬

[bara chhota]

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big and small ‫-----ور چھ---‬ ‫بڑا اور چھوٹا‬ ‫-ڑ- ا-ر چ-و-ا- --------------- ‫بڑا اور چھوٹا‬ 0
b------- -h---a bara aur chhota b-r- a-r c-h-t- --------------- bara aur chhota
The elephant is big. ‫-اتھ---ڑ--ہے--‬ ‫ہاتھی بڑا ہے -‬ ‫-ا-ھ- ب-ا ہ- -- ---------------- ‫ہاتھی بڑا ہے -‬ 0
hat-i--a----ai - hathi bara hai - h-t-i b-r- h-i - ---------------- hathi bara hai -
The mouse is small. ‫چوہا چ-و---ہے--‬ ‫چوہا چھوٹا ہے -‬ ‫-و-ا چ-و-ا ہ- -- ----------------- ‫چوہا چھوٹا ہے -‬ 0
ch---- c-h-t- h-i-- chooha chhota hai - c-o-h- c-h-t- h-i - ------------------- chooha chhota hai -
dark and bright ‫ا-د-ی-ا-– ا-ا-ہ (روش--‬ ‫اندھیرا – اجالہ (روشن)‬ ‫-ن-ھ-ر- – ا-ا-ہ (-و-ن-‬ ------------------------ ‫اندھیرا – اجالہ (روشن)‬ 0
an-h-ra-u-----(-ros----) andhera ujaal ( roshan ) a-d-e-a u-a-l ( r-s-a- ) ------------------------ andhera ujaal ( roshan )
The night is dark. ‫ر-----دھیر- -ے--‬ ‫رات اندھیری ہے -‬ ‫-ا- ا-د-ی-ی ہ- -- ------------------ ‫رات اندھیری ہے -‬ 0
ra----n-h--i---- - raat andheri hai - r-a- a-d-e-i h-i - ------------------ raat andheri hai -
The day is bright. ‫-ن--وش--ہ- -‬ ‫دن روشن ہے -‬ ‫-ن ر-ش- ہ- -- -------------- ‫دن روشن ہے -‬ 0
di- --shan-ha--- din roshan hai - d-n r-s-a- h-i - ---------------- din roshan hai -
old and young ‫-و----ا-ر-ج-ا-‬ ‫بوڑھا اور جوان‬ ‫-و-ھ- ا-ر ج-ا-‬ ---------------- ‫بوڑھا اور جوان‬ 0
b-orha--u--ja-an boorha aur jawan b-o-h- a-r j-w-n ---------------- boorha aur jawan
Our grandfather is very old. ‫ہ---ے د--ا-بہ------ے---- -‬ ‫ہمارے دادا بہت بوڑھے ہیں -‬ ‫-م-ر- د-د- ب-ت ب-ڑ-ے ہ-ں -- ---------------------------- ‫ہمارے دادا بہت بوڑھے ہیں -‬ 0
h-m---- --da---ha- bo----y-ha-n - hamaray dada bohat boorhay hain - h-m-r-y d-d- b-h-t b-o-h-y h-i- - --------------------------------- hamaray dada bohat boorhay hain -
70 years ago he was still young. ‫--ر--ا--پہ-ے وہ ---ن -ھ---‬ ‫ستر سال پہلے وہ جوان تھے -‬ ‫-ت- س-ل پ-ل- و- ج-ا- ت-ے -- ---------------------------- ‫ستر سال پہلے وہ جوان تھے -‬ 0
s--t----aal-pe---- woh-jawan th-y-- sattar saal pehlay woh jawan thay - s-t-a- s-a- p-h-a- w-h j-w-n t-a- - ----------------------------------- sattar saal pehlay woh jawan thay -
beautiful and ugly ‫خو-صو-- ا-ر---ص-ر-‬ ‫خوبصورت اور بدصورت‬ ‫-و-ص-ر- ا-ر ب-ص-ر-‬ -------------------- ‫خوبصورت اور بدصورت‬ 0
kh----ra---ur-ba--o-r-t khobsorat aur badsoorat k-o-s-r-t a-r b-d-o-r-t ----------------------- khobsorat aur badsoorat
The butterfly is beautiful. ‫تت----و---رت--ے -‬ ‫تتلی خوبصورت ہے -‬ ‫-ت-ی خ-ب-و-ت ہ- -- ------------------- ‫تتلی خوبصورت ہے -‬ 0
t-tle- kh--s-ra- hai-- titlee khobsorat hai - t-t-e- k-o-s-r-t h-i - ---------------------- titlee khobsorat hai -
The spider is ugly. ‫م-ڑ--ب--ور---- -‬ ‫مکڑی بدصورت ہے -‬ ‫-ک-ی ب-ص-ر- ہ- -- ------------------ ‫مکڑی بدصورت ہے -‬ 0
m---i---d-oora----- - makri badsoorat hai - m-k-i b-d-o-r-t h-i - --------------------- makri badsoorat hai -
fat and thin ‫م-ٹا ا-----ل-‬ ‫موٹا اور دبلا‬ ‫-و-ا ا-ر د-ل-‬ --------------- ‫موٹا اور دبلا‬ 0
mota a-r---b-a mota aur dubla m-t- a-r d-b-a -------------- mota aur dubla
A woman who weighs a hundred kilos is fat. ‫----ل---ز- ک--عور----ٹی--و-- ----‬ ‫سو کلو وزن کی عورت موٹی ہوتی ہے -‬ ‫-و ک-و و-ن ک- ع-ر- م-ٹ- ہ-ت- ہ- -- ----------------------------------- ‫سو کلو وزن کی عورت موٹی ہوتی ہے -‬ 0
s- k-l- ki ---a--m---i ---i---i-- so kilo ki aurat mouti hoti hai - s- k-l- k- a-r-t m-u-i h-t- h-i - --------------------------------- so kilo ki aurat mouti hoti hai -
A man who weighs fifty kilos is thin. ‫پ----ک-و -ز--ک- -----بل- ہ--- -ے--‬ ‫پچاس کلو وزن کا مرد دبلا ہوتا ہے -‬ ‫-چ-س ک-و و-ن ک- م-د د-ل- ہ-ت- ہ- -- ------------------------------------ ‫پچاس کلو وزن کا مرد دبلا ہوتا ہے -‬ 0
pacha-s ki-o--- -------b-a ho-a---- - pachaas kilo ka mard dubla hota hai - p-c-a-s k-l- k- m-r- d-b-a h-t- h-i - ------------------------------------- pachaas kilo ka mard dubla hota hai -
expensive and cheap ‫م-ن-ا اور س-ت-‬ ‫مہنگا اور سستا‬ ‫-ہ-گ- ا-ر س-ت-‬ ---------------- ‫مہنگا اور سستا‬ 0
me--nga--ur-----a mehanga aur sasta m-h-n-a a-r s-s-a ----------------- mehanga aur sasta
The car is expensive. ‫گا-- --نگ---ے -‬ ‫گاڑی مہنگی ہے -‬ ‫-ا-ی م-ن-ی ہ- -- ----------------- ‫گاڑی مہنگی ہے -‬ 0
g-a-- meh-g----i - gaari mehngi hai - g-a-i m-h-g- h-i - ------------------ gaari mehngi hai -
The newspaper is cheap. ‫--ب-- ---ا ہے -‬ ‫اخبار سستا ہے -‬ ‫-خ-ا- س-ت- ہ- -- ----------------- ‫اخبار سستا ہے -‬ 0
akh-ar sa-----a--- akhbar sasta hai - a-h-a- s-s-a h-i - ------------------ akhbar sasta hai -

Code-switching

More and more people are growing up bilingual. They can speak more than one language. Many of these people often switch languages. They decide which language to use depending on the situation. For example, they speak a different language at work than at home. By doing so, they adapt themselves to their environment. But there is also the possibility of switching languages spontaneously. This phenomenon is called code-switching . In code-switching, the language gets switched in the middle of speaking. There could be many reasons why speakers switch languages. Often, they don't find the appropriate word in one language. They can express themselves better in the other language. It can also be that the speaker feels more confident in one of the languages. They use this language for private or personal things. Sometimes a certain word doesn't exist in a language. In this case the speaker must switch languages. Or they switch languages so that they aren't understood. In that case code-switching works like a secret language. Earlier, mixing languages was criticized. It was thought that the speaker couldn't speak either language correctly. Today it is viewed differently. Code-switching is recognized as a special linguistic competence. It can be interesting to observe speakers using code-switching. Often, they don't just switch the language they're speaking. Other communicative elements change as well. Many speak faster, louder or more accentuated in the other language. Or they suddenly use more gestures and facial expressions. In this way, code-switching is always a little bit of culture-switching too…